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CONTENTS SET A:  

MODERN HIGHWAY SYSTEM:  U.S. HIGHWAYS AND INTERSTATES


Information from Wikipedia at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interstate_Highway_System

A MODERN HIGHWAY SYSTEM--  A MILITARY NEED FOR DEFENSE OF OUR COUNTRY

THE PERSHING MAP

A STATEMENT OF NEED  

       The United States government's efforts to construct a national network of highways began on an ad hoc basis with the passage of the Federal Aid Road Act of 1916, which provided for $75 million over a five-year period for matching funds to the states for the construction and improvement of highways.[  The nation's revenue needs associated with World War I prevented any significant implementation of this policy, which expired in 1921.

       In December 1918, E.J. Mehren, a civil engineer and the editor of Engineering News-Record, presented his "A Suggested National Highway Policy and Plan" during a gathering of the State Highway Officials and Highway Industries Association at the Congress Hotel in Chicago. In the plan, Mehren proposed a 50,000-mile  system, consisting of five east-west routes and 10 north–south routes. The system would include two percent of all roads and would pass through every state at a cost of $25,000 per mile providing commercial as well as military transport benefits. As the landmark 1916 law expired, new legislation was passed—the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1921 (Phipps Act). This new road construction initiative once again provided for federal matching funds for road construction and improvement, $75 million allocated annually. Moreover, this new legislation for the first time sought to target these funds to the construction of a national road grid of interconnected "primary highways," setting up cooperation among the various state highway planning boards.

       The Bureau of Public Roads asked the Army to provide a list of roads that it considered necessary for national defense.

In 1922, General John J. Pershing (left), former head of the American Expeditionary Force in Europe during World War I, complied by submitting a detailed network of 20,000 miles of interconnected primary highways—the so-called Pershing Map.  A boom in road construction followed throughout the decade of the 1920s, with such projects as the New York parkway system constructed as part of a new national highway system. As automobile traffic increased, planners saw a need for such an interconnected national system to supplement the existing, largely non-freeway, United States Numbered Highways system. By the late 1930s, planning had expanded to a system of new superhighways.

PRESIDENT FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT AND THE FIRST MAP OF EIGHT SUPERHIGHWAY CORRIDERS, 1939

       In 1938, President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave Thomas MacDonald, chief at the Bureau of Public Roads, a hand-drawn map of the United States marked with eight superhighway corridors for study. In 1939, Bureau of Public Roads Division of Information chief Herbert S. Fairbank wrote a report called Toll Roads and Free Roads, "the first formal description of what became the interstate highway system" and, in 1944, the similarly themed Interregional Highways.

GERMANY HAD THE FIRST LIMITED-ACCESS HIGHWAY--  THE AUTOBAHN NETWORK      

       The concept of an Interstate Highway System gained a champion in President Dwight D. Eisenhower, who was influenced by his experiences as a young Army officer crossing the country in the 1919 Army Convoy on the Lincoln Highway, the first road across America. He would see the Reichsautobahn system, (the first of the "national" German Autobahn network). The Fuhrer generally gets credit for the country’s first limited-access highways — built as a way to quickly move military units across the country. The network was indeed constructed during the Third Reich, but the concept was established earlier. The Avus experimental highway in Berlin was built between 1913 and 1921. 

Construction Went  Fast  The first section, between Cologne and Bonn, opened in 1932, and by 1938 (the year of Kristallnacht and British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain declaring “peace in our time”), 1,860 miles had been added. Today, the system totals 6,800 miles.

, as a necessary component of a national defense system while he was serving as Supreme Commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II.[  He recognized that the proposed system would also provide key ground transport routes for military supplies and troop deployments in case of an emergency or foreign invasion.

1926--A system of United States Numbered Highways (often called U.S. Routes or U.S. Highways) is an integrated network of roads and highways numbered built within a nationwide grid in the contiguous United States.

As the designation and numbering of these highways were coordinated among the states, they are sometimes called Federal Highways, but the roadways have always been maintained by state or local governments since their initial designation in 1926.

THE MODERN MULTI-LANE LIMITED ACCESS HIGHWAY WAS PLANNED, AND BUILT

1955 map: The planned status of U.S Highways in 1965, as a result of the developing Interstate Highway System

       The publication in 1955 of the General Location of National System of Interstate Highways, informally known as the Yellow Book, mapped out what became the Interstate System. Assisting in the planning was Charles Erwin Wilson, who was still head of General Motors when President Eisenhower selected him as Secretary of Defense in January 1953.

CONSTRUCTION STARTED

       The Interstate Highway System was authorized on June 29, 1956 by the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, popularly known as the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act of 1956.

       Three states have claimed the title of first Interstate Highway. Missouri claims that the first three contracts under the new program were signed in Missouri on August 2, 1956. The first contract signed was for upgrading a section of US Route 66 to what is now designated Interstate 44. On August 13, 1956, Missouri awarded the first contract based on new Interstate Highway funding; this work began on US 40 (now I-70) in St. Charles County.

       Kansas claims that it was the first to start paving after the act was signed. Preliminary construction had taken place before the act was signed, and paving started September 26, 1956. The state marked its portion of I-70 as the first project in the United States completed under the provisions of the new Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956.

       The Pennsylvania Turnpike could also be considered one of the first Interstate Highways. On October 1, 1940, 162 miles (261 km) of the highway now designated I‑70 and I‑76 opened between Irwin and Carlisle. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania refers to the turnpike as the Granddaddy of the Pikes.

Use the article & information from these National Road Resources to find the answers
Include the points you will research from any or all the tasks below:

QUESTIONS TO ANSWER:

1.  Describe how each of these men were instrumental in the building of a network of interstate highways?

 

2.  The construction of a major network of highways was passed by a series of federal legislative acts.  What did each act accomplish after passing?

3. What purpose was the new network of highways to serve?

4. Germany would design and build the first modern limited access highway.  What is the name of the first experimental highway. When and where was this highway built?  Did Adolf Hitler have anything to do with the building or planning of the German Autobahn?

5. When the present-day interstate system started construction, which three states claim to have the first sections.  Where were they located, and what were their Interstate numbers?

6. CLICK HERE FOR A LIST OF "TEN NEW FUTURE INTERSTATES"

and describe the ten future highways using this chart:

Consider: What will its' Numbering Name be? What states it will go through? Where it will start and end (from either direction)?  and any special information specific to the highway.

 

 

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