Learning Lincoln On-line


Gutzon Borglum, Sculptor and Stone Mountain Confederate Memorial-- Introduction  

Follow directions, and you will learn a lot about Mt. Rushmore, its sculptor and the four Presidents



PART ONE-- This activity part will follow three categories provided 0n the National Park Service History and Culture section of their Web Site:

Category One: People

Category Two: Stories

Category Three: Preservation


PART TWO-- This activity will consider why you or a group would want to travel to Mt. Rushmore National Memorial to practice your First Amendment Right to protest. 

1.  Consider something that you think is important to go to "Mt. Rushmore Memorial" to make your protest. 

2.  Read the Memorial guidelines about making protests at the memorial at the NPS website about First Amendment Activites.


PART THREE-- In this activity, you will make a study of how Mt. Rlushmore Memorial came about. 

1.  Who thought of the idea? 

2.  How did Gutzon Borglum get involved in its' planning, site location and how he was going to execute the design and sculpture. 

3.  How did the 4 finally chosen presidents chosen? 

4.  What major theme did each of the presidents represent?

5.  Did the finished sculpture look like Borglum's first plan idea?  If no, why was it changed? 

6.  Find out how he sculpted the heads to be so realistic.  How did he work on the mountain so high, and carve the heads?  Describe the procedures he used.

7.  Make a timeline of the Mt. Rushmore project.  Consider when and how the sculptural memorial was finished.


PART FOUR-- Read about the mysterious component of Mt. Rushmore Memorial:  the Hall of Records. Information can be found at Mt. Rushmore Hall of Records & Sculptor Information.


PART FIVE-- After Mt. Rushmore was completed (visit your timeline to find the date). Also go to the Mt. Rushmore site to find information.

1. What kind of event occurred at the memorial completion and dedication?

2.  Were, and are Native Americans happy with this memorial in it's location? Go to the PBS site for information.  Also, use the Chief Crazy Horse Memorial Page for information.

Consider these points in their article:

The insult of Rushmore to some Sioux is at least three-fold:

1. It was built on land the government took from them.
2. The Black Hills in particular are considered sacred ground.
3.The monument celebrates the European settlers who killed so many Native Americans and appropriated their land. 

The NPS site covers concerns of Native Americans starting in the beginning of construction through modern times.

3.  What is the normal maintenance routine for the mountain sculpture?  What are serious things that arise with the sculpture, and how are they fixed? Go to Mt. Rushmore Maintenance & Repair-- New Technology used.


Check the Mt. Rushmore Hotlist of Great Sites to find Answers:

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